What is single estate Coffee?
The term Single Estate coffee refers to coffee that is grown in a very specific plantation and is not mixed in any way with any other types of coffee or even same-quality coffee from other plantations of the region.
What is specialty coffee?
Specialty coffee refers to the whole process from farmer to cup using single origin coffee. It refers to the way the coffee is roasted and how it is extracted. Specialty coffee should not be confused with "gourmet" or "premium" coffee. The latter are marketing terms with no defined standards. According to the Specialty Coffee Association of America (SCAA), coffee which scores 80 points or above on a 100-point scale is graded "specialty." Specialty coffees are grown in special and ideal climates, and are distinctive because of their full cup taste and little to no defects. The unique flavours and tastes are a result of the special characteristics and composition of the soils in which they are produced.Countries known for producing specialty coffee are Colombia, Ethiopia, Brazil and Indonesia. Arabica and Robusta are the most popular coffee species in the coffee producing countries though only Arabicas are considered specialty coffees.
Why is Farallones single estate coffee so special?
The Farallones plantation is located in a strategic position in the Andes mountain range in Colombia at an average altitude of 1900 meters above sea level and its proximity to the Chocó jungle to the west place it the middle of a privileged micro-climate. These factors, along with the abundance of high mountain water sources, create the ideal conditions for the production of extremely high quality coffee. With its 3 million producing trees, Farallones is one of the very few large estates in the world that can produce 100% high quality Arabica specialty coffee.
What is the difference between Arabica and Robusta beans?
The two varieties of coffee have significant differences, such as, taste, growing conditions and altitude and price. Arabica beans tend to have a sweeter, softer taste, with tones of sugar, fruit, and berries. Their acidity is higher, with that fine wine taste that characterizes coffee with outstanding acidity.
Robusta, however, has a harsher taste, with a grain-like overtone and peanut aftertaste. These contain twice as much caffeine as Arabica beans, and they are considered to be of inferior quality compared to Arabica.
What is the difference between “colombian coffee” and coffee Made in Colombia?
Colombian coffee is coffee that is grown and shipped to different regions of the world as green coffee (without roasting and exposed to the elements during sea transportation) for roasters to then mix with other types of beans in order to improve their blends.
Coffee that is made in Colombia, is unblended coffee that is 100% grown, harvested, hand-picked, roasted and sealed in Colombia. This sealed coffee is then shipped to the rest of the world.
Why is it sent to me roasted, packaged, and sealed from the plantation?
It is the only way to guarantee its origin, purity and quality at every stage of production. It is coffee that is made 100% at the Farallones Estate.
Why is shipping in "green" form harmful for coffee?
Studies on the microbiology of coffee cherries and beans have shown that the predominant toxigenic fungal genera (Aspergillus and Penicillium) are natural coffee contaminants*. Clearly humid conditions during sea transport is a major contributor to the propagation of these types of fungus.
Approx. 95% of European coffee imports are already transported in sea containers. Coffee beans require particular temperature, humidity/moisture and possibly ventilation conditions (SC VI). In general, temperatures should be between 10 and 20°C during transport of green coffee beans. There is a close connection between fluctuations in the ambient temperature and the formation of condensation water (sweat) in the hold or container. Thus, during a voyage from a hot climate (port of loading, e.g. South America in December, i.e. summer in southern hemisphere) to a cold climate (port of discharge, e.g. Northern Europe in December, i.e. winter in the northern hemisphere) intensive cooling of the cargo is essential. Temperatures gradients of as much as 50°C between "summer in the southern hemisphere" and "winter in the northern hemisphere" are entirely possible. A sudden fall in temperature also leads to a higher probability of condensation water formation below the ship's deck or in the container.
If coffee beans have an excessively high moisture content, there is a risk of mustiness, mold growth and post- or overfermentation. Washed coffee frequently has a higher moisture content than unwashed coffee, due to the processing technique used, so meaning that it also releases more water vapor and is therefore more at risk from sweat. Moisture damage (vapor damage, fresh and salt water damage) does not generally become apparent until several days after the beans have come into contact with water and is then manifested by a musty odor and visible changes to the beans. Exposure to wetness (excessive humidity, rain, sweat) turns the beans white, and sometimes subsequently black, moldy and swollen. A relatively long period of exposure to wetness results in a musty/rotten odor.
Also, inspection records from the United States, Australia, China and New Zealand indicate that thousands of organisms from a wide range of taxa are being moved unintentionally with sea containers.
What does the European Union’s Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) certification mean?
The protected geographical indication (PGI) is the name of an area, a specific place or, in exceptional cases, the name of a country, used as a description of an agricultural product or a foodstuff. This means that the EU has recognized colombian coffee as a product that has very specific qualities in terms of properties and traditional production methods that are unique to Colombia.